男女裸交真人全过程

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                  Medical Degree Program in China - Nephrology

                   1. Introduction

                  Nephrology studies kidney. The kidney is an important organ of the human body, its basic function is to produce urine to eliminate metabolites in vivo and some of the waste and poison, also retains water and other useful substances through reabsorption function, such as glucose, protein, amino acid, sodium ion, potassium ion, sodium bicarbonate and so on, to regulate the balance of water and electrolyte and maintain acid-base balance. The kidney also has endocrine function, the producing renin, erythropoietin, active vitamin D3, prostaglandin and kinin and so on, but also the degradation site for the body endocrine hormone and target organ of renal hormone. These functions of the kidney ensure the stability of the body internal environment, so that the metabolism can be carried out normally.
                   
                  2. Structure
                   
                  Each kidney is composed of over 1 million rental units. The rental unit is the basic unit of the structure and function of the kidney. Each rental unit consists of three parts: renal glomerulus, renal capsule and renal tubular, renal glomerular and renal capsule form renal corpuscle. The internal structure of the kidney can be divided into two parts, the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis.
                   
                  3. Function Test
                   
                  (1). Urea Nitrogen (BUN) 
                  (2). Creatinine (CR)
                  (3). Uric Acid (Ua)
                   
                  4. Function
                   
                  (1). Excrete metabolites in vivo and harmful substances into the body
                  (2). Maintain water balance through the formation of urine
                  (3). Maintain electrolyte and acid-base balance in the body
                  (4). Regulate blood pressure
                  (5). Promote the formation of red blood cells
                  (6). Promote the activation of vitamin D
                   
                  5. Early Signs
                   
                  Edema
                  Hypertension
                  Lumbago
                  Too much or too little urine
                  Abnormal urine test
                  Urinary tract infection
                  Weak
                  Diabetes
                  Do not want to eat
                  Anemia
                  There is a bubble in the urine
                  Gout, hyperuricemia
                  The urine protein and urine occult blood
                   
                  6. Chronic Renal Failure
                   
                  Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) is a clinical syndrome caused by kidney damage resulting from a variety of reasons and deterioration, resulting in renal units severely damaged, so that the body is in disorder in the excretion of metabolic and regulation of water, electrolyte and acid-base balance.
                   
                  7. Uremia
                   
                  Renal Replacement Therapy
                  Conventional renal replacement therapy: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, kidney transplantation.
                  Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are the most commonly used renal replacement therapy, renal transplantation is the most complete renal replacement therapy.
                  Diseases Causing Uremia
                  (1). Chronic glomerulonephritis
                  (2). Renal tubular interstitial nephritis
                  (3). Hypertension
                  (4). Secondary to systemic disease
                  (5). Metabolic disease
                  (6). Chronic urinary tract obstruction
                  (7). Congenital disease
                   
                  8. Common Diseases
                   
                  Chronic glomerulonephritis
                  Nephrotic syndrome
                  Chronic renal failure
                  Renal calculus
                  Renal cysts (polycystic kidney)
                  Diabetic nephropathy
                  Hypertensive nephropathy
                  Anaphylatic purpura nephritis
                  Lupus nephritis
                  Pediatric renal disease
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                  ? 男女裸交真人全过程

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